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Archive for the ‘Civil War’ Category

Fort Morton TN

While George and Alexander were engaged in the Civil War and deep in the fighting, their father, John Barclay enlisted on December 1, 1864 as a civilian carpenter with the Quartermaster Department U.S. Volunteers.  He was honorably discharged June 6th, 1865. 

There is no Civil War Service file for John because he was under the status of a civilian carpenter, I only have his Civil War pension file.  In reviewing the pension file I found one reference to where John might have served.  It was a letter written to plead his case for his pension: 

Shakopee, Minn, Augst. 11, 1891  

“While in the service I lost almost entirely the sense of hearing by reason of exposure in the dragging of wet lumber from the water and also became ruptured by reason of heavy lifting at Fort Morton, Tenn. rendering me in my old age wholly incapacitated for manual labor. Repectfully – John Barclay.” 

So far documentation indicates that John would have been 64 years old in 1864 and 90 years old in 1891.  Fort Morton seems to be located near or in Nashville, Tennessee and became part of a network of Forts that surrounded that city which were built by the Union Army.  

The 1890 Census was mostly destroyed in a fire but John Barclay shows up in a special census for Minnesota in some of the surviving documents.  

In studying this schedule I found similar information that John Barclay appeared as a carpenter but there is no unit or company given. He mustered in December 1865 and out on June 1866 (approximately 6 mos). The whole page was difficult to read because the writing was so light and fading.  I tried again at the National Archives to obtain a copy in order to read the entry:  “Was sworn as a Carpenter at St. Louis, Mo. to serve  ____ Mo. was discharged at expiration of term.” 

Sources: First reading FHL #338182, Eagle Creek, Scott County, Minnesota, page 1 #5757. Second reading at National Archives – M123, Roll 23, Minnesota Veterans 1890 Special Schedule of Census, John Barclay Service, U.S. Surviving Soldiers, Sailers and Marines, and Widows M123 Roll 23, Minnesota Veterans, pg. 1, SD2, ED 177, Line 7. 

This 1890 Minnesota census only had a few towns in Cass Co. and did not cover Pine River, also Dakota Co. was wanting, so this means no information about son’s George or Alexander Barclay would be found. 

Source: FHLC#338182 Bundle# 79-82 Rols 22-25 Covers: Big Stone, Carver, Chippewa, Dakota*, Goodhue, *Hennepin, Kandeyohi, LeSuer, McLeod, Meerk, Renville, Rice, *Scott, Silbey. Cass Roll 24, Dakota 23, Crow Wing 24, Hennepin 23, Scott 23.  

John is the Green dot on the map above near Nashville. If you study the map you will see that George might have crossed paths with his father in Nashville while Alexander was on the March with Sherman to the Sea when his father joined the fight!

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My map that I made from the Microsoft Street’s and Trips software is not real detailed but I think it gives some interesting clues as to the movements of the 4th and the 9th Regiments of Minnesota.  I have wanted to do a comparison for quite some time.   

Key to the Maps: 

  • Red Flags represented the 9th Regiment which was George Barclay’s regiment.
  • Turquoise Flags represented the 4th Regiment which was brother Alexander Barclay regiment.
  • Purple Flags represented General Sherman and I confined myself to the Marches to the Sea and through the Carolina’s. 

Some of the flags as a tag with a date of that particular event or location.  Some locations are on the way to a battle or to accomplish some goal known to the higher command.  I was not able to pin down all locations given in the regimental histories and had to make choices because I was running out of room.   

Tip:  Click on the maps and they will open to a bigger size.  You might have to adjust a little with another click.  Don’t forget to hit the back arrow to return to the blog.   

Here is the map from George’s 9th Regiment and General Sherman:  

9th Regiment Locations
Here is the map adding Alexander’s 4th Regimental movements and more of General Sherman and the Carolinas:

Map of 9th & 4th Reg't Movement

 

Comparing the two maps you see that there a lot more flags in turquoise than in red.  At times it appears that the 9th and the 4th are right on top of each other but if you compare dates they are in the areas at totally different times.  

The map below is the start of the Civil War for the 4th and 9th Regiments.  Both brothers headed south at slightly different times. 

4th and 9th Start of Civil War

 

 The map below focuses on the states of Kentucky and Tennessee:  

Civil War - KY & TN

 

 The map below shows a little more detail on Tennessee and movements into Mississippi: 

TN and Mississippi

 

 The map below goes deeper into Mississippi and Louisiana for the brothers at different times: 

Louisiana and Mississippi Locations

 

 This map shows the 4th Regiments marches through Georgia and the Carolinas which mirror those of General Sherman:  

The March thru George and the Carolinas

 

 The 4th Regiment marches in the Grand Review in Washington D.C. in 1865:  

Alex marches in the Grand Review

 

The 4th Regiments heads home  in 1865 and 9th soon follows:  

Alex and George Return Home 1865

 

This was a fun exercise and gives me an idea of what my great-grandfather George A. Barclay and his brother Alexander Barclay experienced.  It is amazing that both George and Alexander came back alive.   

In the next post we will add their father John Barclay’s Civil War service to the mix. Fortunately he only served a short time toward the end of the war in a civil capacity as a carpenter.  

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Alexander Barclay (Barkley) was a soldier in Co. C, 4th Regiment, Volunteer Infantry from Minnesota.  

Once again I seek out this book with a slight variation in author: 

Book:  The Civil and Indian Wars of Minnesota, 1891,  Narrative of the 4th Regiment by Captain Alonzo L. Brown, pages 195 to 220.    There was a copy of this book in the Minnesota Historical Society, Ancestry.com has a copy and Internet Archives at: http://www.archive.org/details/minnesotacivil01minnrich  

“The men were mostly from Dakota county, the headquarters of the company being at Lakeville.  The company proceeded to Fort Snelling and was mustered in on October 7th…” pg. 198. 

“On March 18th, (1862) adjutant General O. Malmros issued an order for the regiment to proceed to St. Louis.  This order he modified on the 19th, by directing a delay of the movement until the opening of navigation.” pg. 199. 

My goal here is not to rewrite the history of this regiment but to identify dates and locations of Alexanders regiment to his brother George’s regimental movements.  This version of the 4th’s history is very detailed and a summary of the events.  The map shows Red for the 9th Reg’t. (George) and Turquoise for the 4th Reg’t (Alex) and Purple for General Sherman highlighting the March to the Sea and through the Carolinas. 

Map of 9th & 4th Reg't Movement

 

 1.  Off to the South April 20, 1862 to April 23, 1862: St. Louis, Benton Barracks on the outskirts of the city. 

On April 20, 1862 the side-wheel steamboat Sucker State landed at Fort Snelling, and six companies of the regiment, accompanied by the regimental band, and in command of Lt. Colonel Thomas, embarked upon it and started for St. Louis, to report to Major General Halleck.  As the boat approached St. Paul the bluffs and river banks were crowded with people who waved their hands and ‘kerchiefs…the steamer soon swung around and headed down stream on its journey, the band playing “The Girl I Left Behind Me….” 

Website on Benton Barracks with wonderful pictures: http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mo/county/stlouis/benton.htm 

 2.  On Sunday, 2nd of May, 1862 the regiment left Benton Barracks on the steamboat John J. Roe and landed at Cairo and Paducah then proceeded up the Tennessee River.  They arrived at Fort Henry and moved up the river another eight miles and disembarked at Paris Landing.  On the boat the Gladiator they proceed further up the Tennessee River to Brown Landing, Tennessee arriving on the 13th.  On May 14th they arrived at Hamburg Landing, Tennessee and left the Gladiator marching two miles to Childer’s Hill where they encamped.  The next day they marched to join the army under General Halleck and were assigned to the First Brigade (Buford’s), Third Division (Hamilton’s), Army of the Mississippi. 

Here is a link to Wikipedia’s biography of General Henry W. Halleck:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Wager_Halleck  

3.  Seige of Corinth May 12th to August 1862:  Moved toward Corinth slowly and on the 18th of May advanced to Farmington.  May 30th they discovered the enemy had evacuated and they pursued them 20 miles south to Boonville (maybe Booneville, MS) and then returned to fives miles from Corinth established camp at Clear Creek.  During the latter part of June they marched toward Holly Springs passing through Rienzi and on as far as Ripley then returned to Clear Creek.  In August they marched 12 miles to Jacinto

4.  Battle of Iuka September 19, 1862:  Jacinto to Iuka…the battle began on the 19th and 20th of September returning to Jacinto and then within three miles of Corinthhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Iuka 

5.  Battle of Corinth October 3-4, 1862: http://americancivilwar.com/statepic/ms/ms002.html 

6.  Campaign down the Mississippi Central Railroad:  Left Corinth and marched to Grand Junction and then onto Holly Springs.  Then from Davis Mills to LaGrange and west to Moscow then marched with Grant during the last of November to Cold Water, Holly Springs and the Tallahatchie River.   Traveled down the Mississippi Central railroad in November 1862 to reach Vicksburg and fell back to Oxford and then back to Memphis

7.  The Yazoo Pass Expedition in the winter of 1862 was organized to turn the enemy’s right at Haines Bluff and compelling the evacuation of that position and using it for operations against Vicksburg.  

8.  Battle of Port Gibson May 1863:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Port_Gibson  

9.  Battle of Milliken’s Bend June 7, 1863:  Above Vicksburg along the Mississippi River:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Milliken’s_Bend  

9. Running the Batteries — Vicksburg:  From Milliken’s Bend to the point a little below Grand Gulf the army embarked and cross the river to Bruinsburg.  No losses at Port Gibson, Forty Hills on May 3rd, nor Raymond on May 12th and at Jackson on May 14th. 

9.   Battle of Champion Hills  May 16, 1863 and after this battle aided in building a bridge across the Big Black so the Seventeenth Corps could cross to go to Vicksburg. http://battleofchampionhill.org/ 

10.  Seige of and Assault on Vicksburg May to July 1863:  They aided other units. They traveled to Mechanicsburg and then moved down to Snyder’s Bluff near Vicksburg and later to Vicksburg and formed a part of the army of occupation of that city after its surrender. http://www.nps.gov/vick/index.htm 

11.  Battle of Chattanooga:  Left Vicksburg on 12th of September, 1863 for Little Rock and Helena and then to Memphis.  Marched to Chattanooga via Winchester over the Cumberland Mountains to Sweden Cove and on to Bridgeport.  Bivouacked in the ravines near Crane’s Hill across from Chattanooga Nov. 23, 24, 25, 1863. General Sherman’s army landed above the city of Chattanooga.  Then they marched to Bridgeport and on to Huntsville and went to destroy ferryboats passing through Madison Station and back to Huntsvillehttp://www.aotc.net/Chattanooga.htm 

12.  Battle of Altoona (Spelled Allatoona) Oct 5, 1864:  Arrived in Stevenson, Alabama and proceeded to Kingston, Georgia in time to celebrate the 4th of July (1864).  Marched from Kingston to Altoona and formed a part of the force stationed there.  Altoona is 40 miles north of Atlanta.  The 4th Regiment was in the thick of this battle to protect General Sherman’s supplies and communications.   Atlanta was captured about September 2d and Hood left. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Allatoona 

13.  March to the Sea:  After Atlanta was taken 

“During the progress of the battle, General Sherman, from the heights of Kenesaw Mountain, and about eighteen miles away, toward Atlanta, signaled to Altoona to learn if Corse had arrived, and received a signal reply that satisfied him, and this circumstance is referred to in the song, “Hold the Fort for I am Coming.”  Sherman’s army soon followed closely after Hood’s, who retreated toward Alabama, and in a few days our communications were again open.  Active preparations were now made for the campaign through Georgia to Savannah.  Supplies were rapidly brought to the front, the convalescents and those unable to travel were sent North, and the army was stripped of surplus animals and property, which were sent to the rear, and on the 14th of November it had assembled at and near Atlanta.  On the 15th it started on the March to the Sea.” pg. 216.  

“Our regiment marched with the rest of General John E. Smith’s Third Division of the Fifteenth Corps, Colonel Tourtellotte in command, and having received several hundred recruits from Minnesota while at Altoona, during the months of September and October, was pretty full in numbers.” pg. 216. 

“The kind people of Georgia made but little opposition to our advance.  Their sweet potato patches were generally numerous, their corncribs abundant, and the melody of their garden fowls sounded as sweetly to the ears of our “bummers” as that of their relatives…And as the country had not been stripped of its supplies by the operation of hostile forces, it yielded sufficient, so that, with the rations carried in the army trains, and a very large drove of cattle that we started with, there was not much suffering on the excursion through the state.  There were no battles, and only an occasional skirmish fought.  With the exception of three rainy days the weather was pleasant during the entire time previous to December 7th…On arriving at Gordon…destroyed a mile and a half of the Macon railroad…Our army arrived before Savannah on the 10th day of December…Our rations got short on approaching the vicinity of Savannah and the men suffered considerable privation.  The city having been evacuated by Hardee’s forces, our army took possession on the 21st.”  pg.216 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sherman’s_March_to_the_Sea 

From this point the Sherman Marched through the Carolinas by boat to Beaufort, rains flood the Savannah river and they had trouble with the wagons crossing and lost some of them.  Marched inland from Beaufort to by Pocotoligo to McPhersonville around January 31st (1865), arriving at Duck Creek

Out regiment was sent to drive them away, and after deploying several companies as skirmishers, out boys charged through the stream, which was waist-deep, and found a fine plantation on the other side.” pg. 217. 

 They then moved on to the Salkehatchie Swamp and River and came to the railroad near Bamberg where they destroyed the rails.  From there they marched across the Edisto River toward Orangeburg then turned north toward Columbia marching through that city on the 17th of February (1865) establishing camp outside Columbia.  They left Columbia on the 20th after they destroyed ammunition and ordnance stores of the enemy.  Marched over high, rocky and rolling country to the Wateree River and the vicinity of Little Lynches Creek although the land was flat the rain fell “incessantly.”  Moved over to the Big Lynches Creek in prep to fight the enemy but found flood waters which they crossed to Cheraw reaching that on March 3rd to find more supplies of the enemy to use.  They remained a few days and marched to Fayetteville dealing with rain and mud on this march. 

“On arriving near Shoe-Heel Creek, our men worked all night long, pulling and lifting the mule teams and wagons over a bottomless swamp, rain falling incessantly.  On the 12th of March we reached the vicinity of Fayetteville, and crossing the Cape Fear River, established our camp near the town.  We left this camp in a rainstorm, and marching all day, over, under and through a flat country, night overtook us stuck in the mud, with the teams down in all directions.  For three days we fought with the elements of mud and rain.” pg. 217.  

14.  Battle of Bentonville took place on the 19th, 20th and 21st of March 1865 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bentonville when Johnson retreated they marched to Goldsboro and camped near that city.  They left there on April 10th and marched for Raleigh and camped near the city.  Johnson surrendered on April 26th and they learned of President Lincoln’s assassination.  On the 29th of April they marched for Richmond and on to Washington passing through Petersburg and arrived at Richmond on the 10th of May near Manchester.  From Richmond they marched through Fredericksburg, Dumfries and the grounds of Mt. Vernon viewing George Washington’s grave and onto Alexandria

“On the 24th of May the regiment marched at the head of the column of General Sherman’s grand army of 65,000 veterans in the review at Washington, and, passing through the city, established its camp five miles out at Crystal Springs.  Leaving its camp near Washington the last of May, the regiment marched to the city and with the rest of the Army of the Tennessee moved by rail to Parkersburg on the Ohio River.  Embarking on the steamboat Champion, it proceeded with the rest of the army down the river to Louisville, Ky. and established its camp near that city, and there remained until July 19, 1865, when it was mustered for discharge out of the service.  The next day the command embarked upon the cars and proceeded on its journey to St. Paul, passing through Indianapolis, Chicago and Milwaukee.  On arriving at La Crosse we embarked on the steamboat Northern Belle, and on July 24th arrive at St. Paul.” pg. 218   

In summary, I think we know who “Marched to the Sea.”  Alexander applied for his Civil War Pension and in those documents from the National Archive I find more evidence that Alex was with Sherman.

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Let us turn our attention to Alexander Barclay’s Civil War Service record and see if we cannot find any clues to this mystery of which brother “Marched to the Sea’ with General Sherman.  I obtained Alex’s Civil War service record from the National Archives before they increased the fee and see the Blogroll to the right for the link.

Fort Snelling 1820-1830

George’s brother Alexander Barclay mustered in to the Civil War at Fort Snelling approximate one year before George.

I visited Fort Snelling near Minneapolis and St. Paul.  The photo shows the fort as it was in about 1827, which is 34 years earlier than the Civil War but inside the museum buildings they have maps and pictures that show the fort through the years.  It gave me an idea of what it might have been like for both George and Alexander.  The Minnesota Historical Society has many historical properties like this that you can visit if you become a member and travel in Minnesota.  I have a link under Blogroll to the right for the society. 

Alexander’s Civil War Service record was listed under “Barkley.”  Alex has 27 cards in his service record. 

1. Company Muster-in Roll:  (All cards have B, 4, Minn at the top)

Alex Musters In

 Alexander Barkley, Pv, Capt. Donaldson’s Co., 4 Reg’t Minn. Vol.s* (*This organization subsequently became Co. C, 4 Reg’t. Minn Inf.), Age 19 years. Ft. Snelling, Minn. Oct. 7, 1861, joined for duty and enrolled Sept 25, 1861 at Ft. Snelling for 3 years.  R.M. Elliott, Copist.2.  Company Muster Roll:

Alexander Barkley, Pv, Co., C, 4 Reg’t Minnesota Infantry. Nov. & Dec. 1861, Present, R.M. Elliott, Copist.

3.  Company Muster Roll:

Jan & Feby, 1862, Present, R. M. Elliott, Copist.

4.  Company Muster Roll:

Mch & Aprl, 1862, Present, R.M. Elliott, Copist.

5.  Company Muster Roll:

May/June 1862, Present, R.M. Elliott, Copist.

6.  Company Muster Roll:

July & Aug, 1862, Present, R.M. Elliott, Copist.

7.  Company Muster Roll:

Sept & Oct., 1862, Present, R.M. Elliott, Copist.

8.  Company Muster Roll:

Nov & Dec., 1862, Present, R.M. Elliott

9.  Company Muster Roll:

Jan & Feb., 1863, Present, R.M. Elliott, Copist.

10.  Special Muster Roll: 

Dated Apl 18, 1863, Present, Remarks:  Sick in quarters., J.R. Funk, Copist.

11.  Company Muster Roll:

Mch & Apl, 1863, Present, J. R. Funk, Copist.

12.  Company Muster Roll:

May & June, 1863, Present, J.R. Funk, Copist.

13.  Company Muster Roll:

July & Aug. 1863, Present, Jr. R. Funk, Copist.

14.  Company Muster Roll: 

Sept & Oct, 1863, Present, J.R. Funk, Copist.

15.  Company Muster Roll:

Nov & Dec, 1863, Present, J.R. Funk, Copist.

 16.  Detachment Muster-out Roll:

Alex Musters Out!

Muster-out to date Dec 31, 1863, Last Paid to Oct. 31, 1863. Roll dated Huntsville, Ala. Feb. 5, 1864.  Clothing account:  Last settled Dec 31, 1862; drawn since $23.23, due soldier $18.77.  Due U.S. – $100.00.  Remarks:  Dischged by virtue of re-enl. as Vet Vol. under the provisions of G.O. 191 series of 1863 from the W.D., H.E. Arnold, Copyist. 

 

17.  M. and D. Roll of Veteran Volunteers:

Roll dated Huntsville, Ala. Feb. 5, 1864. When enlisted Jan 1, 1864, When mustered into date Jan 1, 1864.  Bounty paid, $60.00. Remarks: Remustered as Vet. Vol. under G.O. No. 191, War Dept. Series 1863., Wines, Copist.

NOTE:  There were two enlistment papers in Alex’s file. 

First page:  his “Volunteer Enlistment” in Alabama at Huntsville.  Alexander Barkley born in Hartford Co., Connecticut, aged nineteen years, by occupation a soldier do hereby acknowledge to have volunteered this first day of January 1864 to serve as a Soldier in the Army of the United States of America for the period of 3 years….sworn and subscribed to at Huntsville, Ala. this 1st day of January, 1864 before Wm. T. [Killbridge], Reg’t 4th Minn., signed Alexander Barkley. Examined by E. W. Cross, 4th Minn. Vol. Inft. Examing Surgeon..the soldier has hazel eyes, light hair, light complexion, is 5 ft, 3-1/2 inches high. [James C. Edson, Cprt. 4th Reg. of Minn. Voltrs. Mustered into service...C. 4th Reg. of Minnesota Vol. on the first day of January, 1864, at Huntsville, Alabama, [     ] W. Osborne, Capt. 12th Infantry, A.C. M. 3rd Div. 15th Army Corps.

The second page was the “Declaration of the Recruit” which repeats much of the same information listed above.

18.  Company Muster Roll:

Jan & Feb. 1864, Present, Vet. Vols., J.R. Funk, copist.

19.  Company Muster Roll:

Mch & Apl, 1864, Present, Remarks: Vet Vol., J.R. Funk, Copist.

20.  Company Muster Roll:

May & June, 1864, Present, Sullivan, Copist.

21.  Company Muster Roll:

July & Aug., 1864, Sullivan, Copist.

22.  Company Muster Roll:

Sept. & Oct., 1864, Present.  Remarks:  Promoted from Private Oct. 12, 1864 S.O. 47, Regt. Hd. Qrs., Sullivan, Copist. Corpl. Alexander Barkley, Co. C, 4th Reg’t Minnesota Infantry. 

23.  Company Muster Roll:

Nov. & Dec., 1864, Present, Remarks:  Promoted from private Oct. 12, 1863 S.O. 47, Regt. Hd. Qrs., Sullivan, Copist.

Note:  Sherman’s March to the Sea started on Nov. 18, 1864.

24.  Company Muster Roll:

Jan & Feb, 1865, Present, Remarks:  Appointed from private Oct. 12, 1864. S.O. 47, Regt. Hd. Qrs., Sullivan, Copist.

25.  Company Muster Roll:

Mch & Apr. 1865, Present, Remarks:  Promoted from private Oct. 12/64 S.O. 47, Reg. Hd. Qrs., Sullivan, Copist.

26.  Company Muster Roll:

May & June, 1864, Present, Sullivan, Copist.

27.  Co. Muster-out Roll:

Final Muster Out!

Alexander Barkley, Corpl., Co. C, 4, Reg’t, Minn. Inf., Age 21 years, roll dated Louisville, Ky, July 19, 1865, Muster-out date, July 19, 1865, Last paid Apr. 30, 1865. Clothing Account: due U.S. $15.00.  Due US for arms…$0, Bounty paid, $210.00; due $190.00. Remarks:  Promoted from Private Oct. 12/64. Easterling, [Compant/Compaut].

Note:  Brackets indicate that I cannot read the writing and I am guessing.

There is nothing in Alexander’s Civil War Service record that states anything unusual about his service other than he re-enlisted at the end of 1864 and was promoted to Corporal about the time of Sherman’s march.  The spelling of the Barclay name as “Barkley” means that Alex used a different version than his brother George. 

In the next post we will examine the events of Co. C, 4th Reg’t of the Minnesota Infantry and we will discover some very interesting information!

 

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I became intrigued with the idea of finding out what a wagoner would do in the Civil War and what the wagons physical shape and size would be like.  The idea that my great-grandfather would be a wagoner was truly amazing to me!  He was my size 125 lbs. 5 ft. 4 inches tall. George was young and strong back at the time of the Civil War being about 18 years old.  I think we can see he was a determined person.  

Wagon

In a letter dated July 20, 1999 from Guy LaFrance of the Eastern National in Manassas, Virginia (Battlefield of the Civil War – Bull Run), I received this bit of information:    

 “What I can tell you, based on my own personal knowledge, is that the role of a wagoner was to transport the supplies needed by the army.  He was responsible for driving the wagon and maintaining it, feeding and caring for the mule team that pulled it, ensuring that it was loaded properly, and seeing that its cargo reached its destination safely.  The cargo could be anything that an army of that time required; food, medicines, weapons, ammunition, clothing, shelter tents, tools, the soldier’s knacksacks, officer’s luggage, and anything else the Quartermaster Corps, the branch of the U.S. Army that was responsible for obtaining and distributing supplies felt was needed.  It was, and still is an essential job, one that is too often overlooked when studying military history.”  

The picture of the wagon was taken at a museum in northern Minnesota probably the Itasca Historical Society but I do not remember exactly where. I was amused by the shiny floor and this huge wagon that towered over me.  I think it is probably a Conestoga style.  Next time I am near one of these wagons I will stand next to it so it is documented my size versus a wagon of this type.     

Here is an article about the Quartermaster Department in the Civil War.   

http://www.qmfound.com/quartermaster_1861-63.htm  

The Quartermaster Corps during the Civil War was managed by Montgomery Meigs who reorganized and it made it work.  Several years ago I was poking around on the internet about the Quartermaster Department of the Civil War and there was nothing but now things are changing. Wikipedia has a great biography of this man and his contributions:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montgomery_C._Meigs  

Tip:  go to Google Images and type in “Civil War Wagons” and you get a lot of photos of the different kinds of wagons used: ambulance, supplies, guns and more.  Copyright will not allow me to post pictures here unless I ask permission.   

General Sherman writes in his memoirs:   

An ordinary army-wagon drawn by six mules may be counted on to carry three thousand pounds net, equal to the food of a full regiment for one day.”  The Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman, Vol. II., Part 4; by William T. Sherman  

George Barclay writes in his own words:  

George and the Mule!

This is taken from George’s Civil War Pension record and written in his own hand.  Civil War Pension records are mostly about the service of the soldier and their medical condition in order to secure their pension.  Here George is pleading his case.  He wrote this about 1891.  Ouch! 

Here is an interesting article on mules at the blog:  Civil War by LearnCivilWarHistory.comhttp://www.nellaware.com/blog/civil-war-mules.html  It tells about their uses and care.  Apparently they didn’t use mules around the guns for they would not be willing participants.  Mules worked best for hauling.   I saw a donkey at the Latte Plantation in North Carolina but he was small and shaggy so learning a little about mules versus horses has been very educational for me, I am a city kid.

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There are regimental histories all over the internet and in books. 

The source I chose to work from is:    

The Civil and Indian Wars of Minnesota, 1891, Narrative of the 9th by Hon. C.F. MacDonald, pages 416 to 438.  There was a copy of this book in the Minnesota Historical Society but I think it is pretty widely available and even on the internet.    

As you read these military histories of the regiments you see they are fixed on the foot soldier and artillery but what about the wagoner?    

What follows is a very briefly summary taken from Mr. MacDonald’s narrative.  I was interested in the locations that were involved and especially Co. I.   

Captain:  H.B. Strait, Edward H. Couse; quartermaster, Headquarters were at St. Peters established Nov. 26, 1862.   

1862 to 1863   

October 12, 1862 to April 30, 1863 – Stationed at Fort Ridgely, Minnesota. Company “I” participated in Indian Campaign of 1862.   

June 12-14, 1863 – Ordered to Camp Pope.  Arrived June 14th.  After removing all company property the camp was abandoned.  (INDIAN WARS)   

June 27, 1863 – Company returned to Fort Ridgley.  Distance marched 50 miles.   

July 24-30, 1863 – Ordered from Fort Ridgley to Fort Snelling.  Arrived at Fort Snelling July 30.   

 August 1, 1863 – Ordered to Saint Paul.  Distance marched 110 miles.   

Sept 23, 1863 – October 3, 1863 – Co. I and other companies concentrated at Fort Snelling, preparatory to leaving for the South.    

October 8-12, 1863 – Left Saint Paul, MN. For Saint Louis, Missouri.  Arrived October 12.   

October 13th, 1863 – Were ordered to Jefferson City, Missouri.  Arrived same day.  Distance, 125 miles. Assigned duty guarding railroad from Kansas Line to near St. Louis until May of 1864.   

December 7-8, 1863 – Ordered to Rolla, Missouri.  Embarked on the cars at Jefferson City at 9 a.m.  Arrived at Fort Wyman, Rolla at 1 a.m. on December 8.  Distance, 160 miles.   

1864   

May 18-19, 1864 – Left Rolla, Missouri.  Arrived at Saint Louis in the morning of May 19.  Stationed at Rolla, Jefferson City, LaMine Bridge, Warrensburg, Independence, Knob Noster, Kansas City, Waynesville, Franklin etc.  Headquarters at Jefferson City till April 14, 1864 and at Rolla until May 18.   

May 18-19, 1864 – Left Saint Louis.  Arrived at Memphis May 31.  Regiment concentrated and moved to Memphis, Tennessee.   

June 1-10, 1864 – Joined Sturgis’ expedition (to Guntown Miss., Ripley, Brice’s or Tishamingo Creek, near Guntown) and marched to Brice’s Cross-Roads.  Arrived there on June 10.    

“Found the enemy and engaged them for about three hours, when we were ordered to fall back, which we did in good order.  We made several stands and checked the enemy but only for a short period.  Our retreat continued until we arrived at Memphis, hotly pursued by the enemy.  The men losing all their personal effects and being so completely exhausted and, in many instances, out of rations, were obliged to throw away their arms to avoid falling into the hands of the enemy.  Lost in killed, wounded and missing twenty-two enlisted men, one commissioned officer.”   

May 1864 to Dec. 1864 – Attached to the Dept. of the Missouri to May, 1864.  2nd Brigade, 1st Div., 16th Army Corp., Dept. for the Tennessee, Dept of the Cumberland, to February 1865, 2nd Brigade, 1st Div., 16th Army Corps (New), Military Division West Mississippi to August 1865.   

9th Regiment Locations

Red Flags are 9th Locations, Purple Flag Sherman’s Click once to open, then you might need to click again to get some magnification.

June 22- July 5, 1864 – This company left Memphis, Tennessee with the regiment, of which it formed a part, and proceeded by railroad to La Grange, where it remained until July 5.  Was mustered for pay at La Grange.  Was attached to the First Division, Second Brigade, Sixteenth Army Corps under the command of Major-General A. J. Smith.  Broke up camp July 5 and marched through the northern part of the state of Mississippi.   

July 15, 1864 – Was engaged in the battle of Tupelo, when the enemy was completely routed.  Smith’s Expedition to Tupelo, Miss, July 5-21.   

“This expedition, which was under the command of that veteran hero, Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith, was organized for a raid in the direction of Tupelo, Miss., with a view to cutting the railroad, intercepting movements against Gen. W. T. Sherman, and, by this invasion of far Southern territory, keep the Confederates from sending Gens. S.D. Lee and Forrest’s forces to co-operating against “Old Tecumseh.”    

July 21, 1864 – Marched back to La Grange, where we arrived July 21, having marched a distance of about 180 miles.   

August 1-30 Smith’s raid to Oxford, Mississippi   

September – October 1864 – Stationed in the field near Pleasant Hill, Missouri   

 June 22-28, 1864 – Left Memphis.  Arrived at La Grange, Tennessee on June 28th.   

September 2, 1864 – The company embarked on transports at Memphis, Tennessee and proceeded to Devall’s Bluff, Arkansas (Mower’s Expedition to Duvalls Bluff, Ark, Sept 3-9); thence marched to Cape Girardeau, Missouri via Brownsville, Arkansas, then embarked on transports and proceeded to Jefferson City, Missouri.  Disembarked and marched in pursuit of General Price. Marched thru Arkansas and Missouri in pursuit of Price September 17-November 15.  Then moved to Nashville, Tenn.   

November 15, 1864    

After destroying Atlanta’s warehouses and railroad facilities, Sherman, with 62,000 men begins a March to the Sea.     

November to December 1864, Lawrenceburg, Tenn   

November 1-15, 1864 – The company was at Pleasant Hill, Missouri; thence marched 275 miles to Benton Barracks, Missouri, where it arrived November 15 and remained.   

November 24-December 1, 1864 – It embarked on transports and proceeded to Nashville, Tennessee, where it arrived December 1.  Battle of Nashville, Ten. December 15-16.  Pursuit of Hoot to the Tennessee River December 17-28.     

December 15-16:   

The company performed picket and fatigue duty in entrenching at Nashville until December 15, when it took an active part in the battle of December 15 and 16, participating in four successful assaults on the enemy’s works, having in two days fighting, the captain and one private killed and three men wounded.  The company then marched with the Army in pursuit of the demoralized enemy and have reached Lawrenceburg, Tennessee on muster day.   

1865   

January, 1865 - The company was last mustered in the field near Lawrenceburg, Tennessee.  Thence marched to Clifton, Tennessee.  There embarked on transport Tyrone and proceeded to Eastport, Mississippi.   

January 10, 1865 – Disembarked and remained.   

February 5, 1865 -  The company embarked on transport “Atlantic” and came to New Orleans, Louisiana. Disembarked and camped at Chalmette near the city.   

March 5-7, 1865 – Left Camp Chalmette near New Orleans on board transports for Dauphin Island.  Arrived March 7.  Moved to New Orleans, LA., February 6-21.    

March 20, 1865 – Embarked for mouth of Fish River, Mobile Bay.  Campaign against Mobile, Ala., na dits Defenses Mary 17-April 12.    

March 25-26, 1865 – Marched in the direction of Spanish Fort, skirmishing all day with the enemy, arriving at the Fort on March 26.   

April 8, 1865 – Lay in sight of that place until its fall April 8, when we marched to Blakeley.   

April 9, 1865– Gen. Robert E. Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.   

April 13-25 – Remained at (Blakely) until April 13, when we took up our line of march for Montgomery, Alabama, arriving on April 25.  (Siege of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely march 26-April 8.  Assault and capture of Fort Blakely April 9.  Whole distance traveled 470 miles.   

May 10, 1865 – Last mustered at Montgomery, Alabama.  Occupation of Mobile, April 12.  March to Montgomery, April 13-25.  Duty at Montgomery and Selma until July.   

May 14, 1865 – Broke camp and marched to Selma, Alabama, arriving May 14.   

May 19, 1865 – Marched to Marion, Alabama.  Whole distance marched 85 miles.   

Moved to St. Paul July 26-August 11.  Mustered out August 24, 1865.   

In summary:  The 9th was at Nashville when Sherman was Marching to the Sea.  I did read where one military unit made it to Atlanta in 17 days in order to connect with Sherman.  Unless I get more detail, I am going to have to assume that great-grandfather George A. Barclay was not with Sherman in Georgia but “in the field Tenn” in the Battle of Nashville in Tennessee.

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George Barclay served from August 15, 1862 to August 24, 1865.  He had 23 cards in his Civil War Service File with various numbers.  There was a #75 at the top of the summary card.  

D.C. Shoemaker a retired career military man who had served in the Quartermaster Department and a Civil War buff was kind to help me interpret some of the information on George’s Civil War service record cards.  D.C. and I were co-workers in years past and I was lucky to be able to sit with him and learn.  I have not had any military experience and D.C.’s help was greatly appreciated.  

D.C. began by pointing out that G.O. stands for “General Orders – “plan for attack.”  The other designation is S.O. (like S.O. 38) “Special Orders – “make part of another unit.”  

D.C. also explained that the term “muster” was more like a roll-call where they would line up the men and actually count them and physically take stock of what they had.  

George's Civil War Service Cards

 

1.  The Company Descriptive Book 

George Barclay, Co., I, 9 Reg’t Minnesota Inf.  

Description:  Age 18 years, height 5 feet 4-3/4 inches tall, Complexion: dark, Eyes: dark; hair dark . Where born:  Enfield Co., Conn. Occupation:  farmer 

Enlistment:  When:  Aug 15, 1862, Where: Shakopee, By Whom. Jos R. Ashley, term 3 y’rs, Remarks: none. J. Baker Copiest.  

The Civil War Pension file gives his weight at 125 lbs in 1892.  This information from his pension file, is of course years later.  As you can see he was not a large man.  

2.  Company Muster-in Roll:  

George Barclay, Wagoner, Co. I, 9 Reg’t Minnesota Inf. Age 18 years, Appears on 

Company Muster Roll of the organization named above.  Roll dated Fort Ridgely, Oct. 12, 1862.  Muster-in to date August 15, 1862.  

Joined for duty and enrolled: When Aug. 15, 1862, Where Shakopee, Minn. Period 3 years.  Bounty paid $25.00/100; due $ 0/100. Remarks: Premium paid $200; advanced pay $13.00. Signed J. B. Jones, Copyist.  

3.  Company Muster Roll Card 

George Barclay Wagoner, Co. I, 9 Reg’t Minnesota Infantry Appears on 

Company Muster Roll for Oct. 12 to Oct 31, 1862, Present, Remarks: Wagoner Q.M. Dept., signed J.B. Jones, Copyist.  

4.  Appears on Returns as follows:   

Return - A Summary

 

November, 1862. Teamster; Jan. 1863, Teamster in Q.M. Dept.; April 1863, Co. Cook. Oct. 1863. On extra duty in R.Q.M. Dept.; Dec. 1863, Acting Q.M. Serg’t.; Jan. to Sept. 1864, Mch, 1865 R.Q.M. Dept, *Appears also as Barklay & Barkly, signed C. H. Underwood, Copyist.   

Note:  R.Q.M refers to Regimental Quarter Master.  Teamster meant he drove the team. D.C. explained that as Acting Sergent at Q.M. it indicates that he was promoted to “brevet.” This means he had the title, the authority, but not the pay. 

5.  Company Muster Roll – Every card from this point on states he is a Wagoner with company I, 9th Reg’t. Minnesota Infantry. 

for from enlistment to Dec. 31, 1862, Present, sign J.B. Jones, Copyist.  

6.  Company Muster Roll 

for Jan. & Feb. 1863, Present, signed J.B. Jones, Copyist. 

7.  Company Muster Roll 

for March & April, 1863, Present, Remarks: Cook for Company, signed J.B. Jones, Copyist. 

8.  Special Muster Roll 

for dated April 11, 1863, Present, signed J.B. Jones, Copyist. 

9.  Company Muster Roll 

for May & June, 1863, Present, signed J.B. Jones, Copyist. 

Note:  D.C. thought he was put on light duty because he could have been sick or injured. 

10.  Company Muster Roll 

for July & Aug. 1863, Present, signed J.B. Jones, Copyist.  

11.  Company Muster Roll 

for Sept. & Oct., 1863, Present, Remarks: Daily duty Q.M. Dept., signed J.B. Jones, Copyist.  

12.  Company Muster Roll 

for Nov. & Dec. 1863, Present, Remarks: Daily duty in Q.M. Dept., signed J.B. Jones, Copyist.   

13.  Company Muster Roll 

for Jan. & Feb. 1864, Present, Remarks: Daily duty in Q.M. Dept., signed Howel, Copyist.   

14.  Company Muster Roll 

for Mch. & Apr. 1864, Present, Remarks: Daily duty in Q.M. Dept., signed Howel, Copyist.   

 15.  Company Muster Roll 

for May & June, 1864, Present, Remarks: On daily duty in Q.M. Dept., signed Howel, Copyist.   

16.  Company Muster Roll 

for July & Aug, 1864, Present, signed Howel, Copyist.   

17.  Company Muster Roll 

for Sept. & Oct, 1864, Present, Remarks: On daily duty in Q.M. Dept., signed Howel, Copyist. 

18.  Company Muster Roll 

for Nov. & Dec. 1864, Absent.  Remarks:  “On [D.S.] with Brigade Quartermaster since November 22, 1864, signed Howell, Copyist.  

19.  Apears on Muster Roll of enlisted men on detached service at Hd. Qrs. 2 Brig., 1 Div. , Detachment, Army of Tenn. 

Muster Roll - Army of Tenn

 

for Nov. & Dec., 1864, Station: in the field Tenn. Present, Detailed from Co. I, 9th Minn, Infy in Q.M.D. SO. 38 Hd Qrs. 2d Bridg. 1st Div 16, A.C. November 22, 1864, signed Granes, Copyist.  

Note:  Sherman’s March to the Sea started on Nov. 15, 1864! 

20. Company Muster Roll 

for Jan & Feb. 1865, Present, signed Howell, Copyist.  

21. Company Muster Roll 

for Mch & Apr. 1865, Present, signed Howell, Copyist. 

22. Company Muster Roll 

for May & June, 1865, Present, signed Howell, Copyist.  

23.  Co. Muster-out Roll dated 

Ft. Snelling Minn. Aug. 24, 1865, Muster-out date, Aug. 24, 1865, Last paid to Feb. 28, 1865.  Clothing account: due U.S. $10.72/100.  Bounty paid $25.00; due $75.00. Remarks.  Retains knapsack, haversack (like a duffel bag) and canteen, under provisions of G.O. No. 114 C.S. A.G.O. 

Note:  C.S.A.G.O means Chief of Staff, Adj. General Office.  

Mustering Out

 

Based on this service record, I don’t think George was at Vicksburg which was fought from March to July 1863 and he wasn’t at Chattanooga which was in late 1863.  

D.C. wrote to me in an email, in March of 2001, to help me understand the structure of the military units in the Civil War: 

Here goes:  A regiment was the smallest independent unit at that time.  Regiments have (usually small) numbers like the 3rd Infantry or the 10th Artillery.  A regiment might have as few as one battalion or as many as eight.  Each battalion might have from two to five companies, each with a letter, starting with A, B, and so on.  Company letters would run in succession through the regiment; a second battalion might have companies D, E, and F, with the next battalion having G, H and so on.  Each company would have two to four platoons of about 40 men each, numbered 1st platoon, 2nd platoon, etc. which will give you an idea of the size.  So from smallest to largest, it runs platoon, company, battalion, regiment, division, and army.  Regiments could be formed into divisions of two or more regiments, pretty much at will.  Platoons always stayed with their companies, and companies always stayed with their battalions, but regiments could be switched around at times.  The composition of a regiment or a division might be hard to pinpoint without some official history from the time or the area and territorial forces would be less well documented than state’s divisions.” 

Another website gives even more details on the structure of the military in the Civil War:  http://www.civilwarhome.com/armyorganization.htm 

Armies, Corps, Divisions, Brigades, Infantry Regiments 

So what is the Army of the Tennessee?  Back to Wikipedia for a description:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_of_the_Tennessee

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My Aunt Miriam writes in her notes about George’s enlistment in the Civil War.

Miriam’s Notes – Civil War

The book from Pine River “Logsleds to Snowmobiles” gives this information about George’s service:

“George became a wagoner with Company A, Ninth Volunteer Infantry.  Barclay was with General Sherman on his “march through Georgia to the sea.” He was honorably discharged on August 24, 1865.” page 105.

The company is “I” and not “A,” that George served with.

Did my great-grandfather George Angus Barclay “march with Sherman” as my Aunt Miriam states or did he “marched through Georgia to the sea” as the book reference suggests?

Well let’s examine the evidence.

Because I am a curious creature I ordered George’s Civil War Service record from the National Archives (NARA) and waited impatiently for its arrival.  I also ordered his Civil War Pension Record but NARA didn’t have it?  NARA wrote back to tell me that it was with the Veterans Administration.  So of course, I wrote for it immediately.  It came – all 3 inches thick of it!  The pension file was huge and covered 1892 to 1942.

After studying both the Civil War Service Record and the Civil War Pension files of George A. Barclay I cannot state with certainty that George  “marched with Sherman” or ‘marched through Georgia to the sea!”  George never mentions it in his pension file. The goal of the pension file application is to get a pension and it is probably better to keep your answers short.  The Service Record is more like an attendance record for the soldier.

George writes in his own hand on an affidavit from his pension file:

I have not been in the military or naval service of the United States since August 24th, 1865.  That I served as Wagoner in Company I, 9th Minn. Vol. Inft. for the period of 3 years and 9 days and was never in any company.”  From G.A. Barclay Civil War Pension File.  

We need to understand the history of George William T. Sherman’s military career.  The History Channel website has this interactive video of the three of the campaigns of Sherman:  Sherman’s March.

http://www.history.com/topics/william-t-sherman

1.  The Atlanta Campaign.  It started in the Summer and he took Atlanta on September 7, 1864.  It is from Atlanta that Sherman started his march to the sea.

2.  The Savannah Campaign started on November 15, 1864 and went for 300 miles. This is the famous “March to the Sea” campaign.  He did march across Georgia to Savannah, NC to accomplish this goal.   This link to the History Channel gives more on this specific march.

http://www.history.com/topics/shermans-march/interactives/shermans-march

“Sherman’s Army:  Sherman had a massive army.  Over 60,000 troops, 8000 horses and mules, 2500 wagons.  Two 900 foot pontoon bridges to cross the many rivers and streams of Georgia.  In some places the army would march by a house or plantation for 2 straight days without a break during daylight hours.  The March proceeded in two wings.  Each wing was divided into two columns.  Often the four columns were on separate roads.”

Wikipedia’s – Sherman’s March to the Sea has a really good explanation and even details the “Opposing forces” which breaks down the various army groups that participated in this march in more detail along with links.  They have some maps with details of the campaigns and you can click to make them bigger.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sherman%27s_March_to_the_Sea

3.  The Campaign of the Carolinas.  In this campaign Sherman marched north through these two states starting on January 15, 1865.

George William T. Sherman had a very long military career even before the beginning of the Civil War.  He was involved in many other campaigns.  To dig deeper on W. T. Sherman let’s go back to Wikipedia for a biography on Sherman.   There is a lot of great information at this particular Wikipedia site but always be sure you check other sources and there are plenty on the web referencing the Civil War.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tecumseh_Sherman

Scrolling down the page to Civil War Service you see that Sherman was involved with other campaigns prior to the three mentioned above.

1.  First Battle Bull Run or First Battle of Manassas. I have had the privilege of visiting this park twice.  The park is west of Arlington, Virginia and easy to get to by car.  I believe it is haunted. The battle took place on July 21, 1861.  So if George mustered in on August 15, 1862 he most definitely was not in this battle. The National Park Services has wonderful websites of the major battlefields of the Civil War:  http://www.nps.gov/mana/index.htm

2.  Shiloh is in Tennessee and the battle took place April 6-7, 1862.  The National Park Services also has a website for this battlefield:  http://www.nps.gov/shil/historyculture/shiloh.htm  Again George musters in August 15, 1862 he misses this action as well.

3.  Vicksburg, Mississippi Dec 26, 1862 to July 4, 1863 and Chattanooga, Tennessee October and November 1863.   Now there might be possibilities in these campaigns?  We will see.

Let us review George’s military card service cards in the next post and see if we can find anything in them that will help us figure out this puzzle.

WARNING!  Researching and reading about the Civil War can be addicting!

Here are some other websites to explore:

The National Civil War Museum in Harrisburg, PA is a wonderful place to visit.  I was able to wander this archive back in September of 2008.

http://www.nationalcivilwarmuseum.org/index_1.php

 

Civil War:  http://www.civilwar.com/

Don’t forget Google Images of the Civil War go here http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi  and type in “Civil War” or “Civil War Wagons” and click!

Civil War Home Page http://www.civil-war.net/

Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System http://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/  You can search for a soldier and more.

The Civil War (PBS) http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/

American Civil War.com http://americancivilwar.com/

Time Line of the Civil War:  http://rs6.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1861.html

The National Civil War Museum

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