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Archive for the ‘Jefferson G. Dawes’ Category

The local newspaper in Pine River had some interesting tidbits of news about J.G., Amarilla and other activities:

Mrs. Barclay left for Minneapolis on Monday.

Mr. Dawes seems to think that nothing is too good for a livery barn in Pine River. Mr. Swenson has been putting the finishing touches on it and you can hardly tell it now from a bank and it isn’t completed yet.

Barclay Co and a European Spa?

Barclay Co and a European Spa?

J.G. Dawes as purchased some street lamps for Pine River and soon our streets will loom up on a dark night like a city built among the stars. Who says Mr. Dawes isn’t doing anything for the town. 

Apparently J.G. opened another room for rent establishment.  The Leef Bros. were managing the Barclay Hotel so this had to be a separate entity?

DANCE:  There will be a dance at the Barclay Hall on Saturday evening October 26th. under the auspices of C.J. [Leef] and family.  Lunch will be served at the hotel.  Good music…”Come everybody.” 

Barclay Hotel Ad 1902

Barclay Hotel Ad 1902

Apparently as some point Amarilla turned the management of the Barclay hotel over to her friends the Leef’s. Below this ad was another:

Mrs. G.A. Barclay & Co.

Mrs. G.A. Barclay & Co.

This appears in the Nov. 15, 1901 pg 1 of the local paper

The Barclay Co. of Pine River has purchased 60,000 feet of logs and 10,000 feet of lumber in Bungo.  Going to be some building carried on in this vicinity just watch. 

The Barclay Mercantile and Lumber Co.

The Barclay Mercantile and Lumber Co.

Christmas Time ad for Barclay:

Christmas Ad - Barclay

Christmas Ad – Barclay

That following March 14, 1902 pg. 3 of the Pine Tree Blaze reads

G.A. Wagner of Lake Preston, S.D. has purchased the blacksmith shop and residence of Mrs. Barclay and will take possession April 1st. Mr. Wagner is known by a number around here as a first class blacksmith and we are pleased to have him make this his home. He left Tuesday and will return in a few weeks with his family.  

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Jefferson G. Dawes was very involved in the early years of Pine River especially in 1901.

Warren Huffman, “As I Remember…1894,” Bicentennial Issue 1873-1973, Pine River Journal, Pine River, MN.

Excerpts: “…The first winter was a hard one for new settlers to get started. George Barclay had the one store in Pine River and without the credit that he extended it would have been impossible to stay. George Barclay had his detractors, but he was a kind-hearted man and generous. He was a small man with a high-pitched voice. I remember him well, and we all felt a genuine sorrow and loss when he was shot by an unknown person as he sat reading in the lobby of the Barclay Hotel.

My first visit to Pine River was in the summer of 1895. At that time the town extended along one street and block facing the railway station. Barclay’s store occupied the site of the present locker plant. As I was only four years old at that time I have no recollection of what the other buildings were except the store and hotel. Being a small boy in those early years I have no memory of dates, but some things stand out in memory regardless of dates; such as, the Indian graves...After George Barclay’s death his widow married J.G. Dawes who was a real “go-getter.” Mr. Dawes immediately began putting Pine River on the map….”

Francis Allen, “Early History of Pine River,” pg. 2-3, 1973 Bicentennial Issue, Pine River Journal, Pine River, Minnesota:

Soon after this Jefferson G. Dawes came here and settled… proceeded to plat and organize the city of Pine River. We must recognize the vision of this man as we look over our beautiful little city today, with its wide streets and beautiful parks and swimming pool. According to records in 1901, a petition signed by thirty-four residents requesting the organization of the village was brought forth on December 5, 1901, an election was held, there being thirty votes cast, and the following officers were unanimously elected: J.G. Dawes, President; H. S. Gilbert, J.P. Leef and E.S. Holman Trustees etc.”

Cass County Heritage Book 1897-1997, pg. 55 Cass County Historical Society, Walker, MN.

Pine River votes to incorporate as a village on December 5, 1901 with 190 residents located on 163 acres which center at Barclay and First Streets. This village includes two stores, two saloons, a hotel and livery, a boarding house, a barbershop, a blacksmith shop, a land office, a printing office and a post office. In 1997, 124 years after the founder of Pine River paid $1.25 per acre for land, acreage prices near Pine river range from $500 to $1,250 per acre. The village consists of over 30 retail businesses, plus one car dealership, three hair care establishments, two land offices, two banks, three eating establishments, a library, a medical clinic, a government center, a municipal liquor store and a post office.

Pine River Blaze, Pine River, MN, “Council Meeting, Pine River, MN,” Dec. 19, 1901.

Council Meeting 1901

Council Meeting 1901

At the first meeting of the village council of the village of Pine River, there were present President J.G. Dawes; Trustees J.P. Leef, E.S. Holman and Heber S. Gilbert and Recorder S.P. Hanson. The recorder reported that he had received and filed the official oath of the following village officers: President J.G. Dawes, Trustees J.P. Leef, E.S. Holman and Herber S. Gilbert; Recorder, S.P. Hanson whereupon it was declared that President J.G. Dawes and Trustees J.P. Leef, E.S. Holman and Herber S. Gilbert were duly qualified. Upon motion it was decided that the recorder, the constables and the justices of the peace each give a bond to be approved by the village council, in the sum of five hundred dollars ($500.00), and that the village treasurer give a bond to be approved by the village council, in the sum of one thousand dollars (1000.00). The bond of Recorder S.P. Hanson with J.P. Leef and J.G. Dawes as sureties was on motion approved and accepted. The bond of Constable D. J. Jones with J.G. Dawes and J.P. Leef as sureties was on motion approved and accepted. Whereupon it was declared that Recorder S.P. Hanson, Constable D. J. Jones were duly qualified for their respective offices, upon the filing of their bonds as required by law. Upon motion, Ordinance No. 1, relating to the sale of Intoxicating Liquors was passed and approved, and ordered published in the Walker Pilot, the official paper of Cass County, in the absence of a legal newspaper in the village of Pine River.

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After Barclay’s death, Ammarilla took charge of the businesses he had started. Apparently she had an active adviser and partner in J.G. Dawes. Dawes platted the village in 1898 almost exclusively on land owned by the Barclay’s. At the time that the village of Pine River was incorporated in 1901, Ammarilla donated to the village 10 lots for a school, ground for a cemetery, the park land on the north edge of the village site of the present city hall, as well as land on the North Branch of the Pine River {Norway Brook} where the swimming area and the dam are located and property for the building of two churches.” From the Logsleds to Snowmobiles book.

Remember by his own testimony at the Grand Jury in May 1899,  J.G. Dawes was not in Pine River till February 1899.  So I don’t think he was platting Pine River in 1898 and would lean more toward 1899 or 1900.

The Cass County Courthouse has the plat maps for Pine River.  They have a table of contents revised 1/2/2007. Now the City of Pine River might have their own maps and maybe those go back further then 1901.

I was particularly interested in the ones with Amarilla Barclay name, J.G. Dawes and the Urton name.

  • A-60 Urton 1st Add
  • A-61Urton 2nd Add

    1901 Original Plat signed by Amarilla or Mrs. G.A. Barclay

    1901 Original Plat signed by Amarilla or Mrs. G.A. Barclay

  • A-25 Dawes 2nd
  • A-24 Dawes 3rd and 4th
  • A-25 Dawes 5th
  • Pine River Plat of 1900, Original plat 1901, A-15, A-15 (Lots 1-4 B1-11 Torrens)

On the side of this plat map is a lot of writing.  There is a certificate of the Surveyor, Certificate of the Owner which is Mrs. G.A. Barclay.  The land is described and it is very difficult to read but the following was sort of interesting.

That said Mrs. G.A. Barclay has examined the above described land to ____ platted as a Townsite to be known as “Pine River.” That said townsite has been platted for _____ purposes as shown on accompanying map, and that Mrs. G.A. Barclay hereby donates to the Public use forever all the streets and Alleys delineated there on. 

Following that was a certificate from the County Treasurer and Auditor about the taxes being paid and lastly the Register of Deeds certificate that it had been recorded.   There is no mention of J.G. Dawes in the writing.

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Widows Application 1898

Widows Application 1898 portion of…

On November 21, 1898 Amarilla tried again for George’s Civil War pension remember that George tried at least twice to get this money but failed.  She filed the Declaration for Widow’s Pension in the county of Crow Wing with the help of Henry D. Philips Law Offices of Washington D.C.

Something happened because the claim had the word ABANDONED stamped a on December 9, 1898 document and several others.

Apparently on 21 November 1900, J.G. Dawes appears on another Declaration of Widow’s Pension with Amarilla.   J.G. Dawes was the notary public at the bottom of the form.  So J.G. tried to help her out.

Several other documents followed from friends and a physician.  They are very interesting and I wonder what stories these people would have told about George and Amarilla.

General Affidavit of Bertha Mickelson, 25 February 1901.

That she was well acquainted with George Barclay deceased for a period of 4 years before his death.  That in the evening of October 29, 1898 about half pass seven o’clock said George Barclay was shot and killed by a person unknown at the time he was sitting in a chair in his own house.  I heard the report of the gun saw him fall and he expired on the floor where he fell.  The ball passed through his neck.  The shot was fired from outside of building and was fired through a window. 

The Physician’s Affidavit was signed by T. F. [Rodwell] M.D. on the 7th of August 1901.

That he is a practicing physician and that he has been acquainted with the said soldier two years, and that he was a man then whose general appearance would not admit I should judge of unusual labor.  I met George Barclay September 1896 and occasionally until his death Oct. 1898.  Where I was called to testify as to cause of death which was from a bullet fired by some unknown person while said Barclay was seated in his house at Pine River passing through his neck thereby causing instant death. 

General Affidavit of John Bubar, age 53 years  Henry Shalding, age 46 years citizens of Brainerd, 28 January 1902.

That they knew personally and were well acquainted with the soldier, George A. Barclay, for a period of 28 years commencing in the year 1867 and continuing up to the  time of his death in the year 1898; that they are acquainted with and have known personally Ammarilla Barclay, widow of George A. Barclay, soldier, for a period of 20 years commencing in the year 1882 and continuing up to the present time; that they personally know said George A. Barclay and Ammarilla Barclay were married and lived together as husband and wife; that they verily believe that said George A. Barclay and Ammarilla Barclay or either of them, was never married prior to their said marriage; that the contents of this affidavit are known to affiants by personal knowledge, observation and acquaintance for a time as aforesaid. 

Something happened and the lawyers were still trying to get a resolution in 1905 and 1906 but it doesn’t appear anything came of it.  You notice that the time frame it really stretched out which means that it was difficult to get resolution.  Every time the law was updated there would be a flood of these widows declarations. Every time Amarilla applied she would have to resubmit documentation.

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J.G. Dawes and Amarilla, 1902 courtesy of the city of Pine River - From Logsleds to Snowmobiles

J.G. Dawes and Amarilla, 1902 courtesy of the city of Pine River – From Logsleds to Snowmobiles

Amarilla was going in a new direction when the turn of the century came to Pine River.  She was going to be leaving behind her life with George Barclay and entering into another relationship with J.G. Dawes.  The picture above appears on page 113 of the Logsleds to Snowmobile book of the history of Pine River.

J.G. Dawes said in the Grand Jury proceedings in 1899, that he came to Pine River in February of 1899.  He came from St. Paul and Minneapolis.  He was a flour salesman and he came to make a deal with the Barclays.

By 1900 J.G. and Amarilla were together.  Apparently Amarilla made Dawes an offer he couldn’t refuse for he was working for her as a store clerk by 1900.

Line 63, dwelling 36, family 36, Barclay, Ammarilla, Head, white, female, born Nov. 1858, age 41, marital status: widowed, married 16 yrs., place of birth Iowa, father born in England, mother born in Ohio, occupation: owner of a store, can read and write and speak English. The rest of the columns were difficult to read.

Line 64, same dwelling & house numbers, Dawes, J.G., employee, white, male, born Mar, 1851, 47 years old, single, born in New York, father and mother were English, occupation: Store Clerk, can read, write and speak English.

Source: Amarilla Barclay Household, 1900 U.S. Federal Census, Twp. 137 R. 29 (Pine River), Cass County, Minnesota, SD# 6, ED#50, Sht 3, pg. 8, FHL #1240759, #8974.

They must have been something to see walking around the town dressed in their finest clothing as the picture above indicates.  Makes me wish I had known her and J.G. What stories they both would have told!

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Amarilla was appointed the Administrator of her husband George A. Barclay’s estate back in December 1898.  George did not have a will and Amarilla and Grace were his only heirs.  The estate is on file at the Minnesota Historical Society under Cass County Government. As you can see, Amarilla’s name was spelled as “Ammarilla and even spelled “Ammerilla.”

1.  #1065 – Order to Examine Accounts at Walker on August 15, 1899 at 10 a.m. in the Probate office, Cass County, Minnesota.

2. #1065 – Final Decree August 15, 1899 document.

The final decree included Amarilla Barclay and Grace McDonald to receive the land and general merchandise of great grandfather’s estate.

That the said deceased died intestate, and the residue of said estate consists of the following described Real and Personal estate, to-wit:

A ______of general merchandise at Pine River, Mnn. fixtures, furniture and household goods. Notices?, mortgages, open accounts and cash on deposit at First National Bank of Brainerd $655.15 and other miscellaneous articles and personal property.

The NE4 & NW 4; NW 4 NE 4; SE 4 NW 4 and SE 4 SE 4 all in Sec 6, T 137 R 29; the ____SE, Sec 28, T 138 R. 29; Lot 6 Sec 8 F 137, R 29; Lot 7 & SE 4 SW 4 Sec 31, T 138 R 29; NW4 & NW 4 Sec 12 T. 137 R. 30, All in Cass County; and SW 4 NW4, NW, SW__Sec 10, T. 137 R 29 in County of Crow Wing in said state…

that the following named persons are entitled to said estate by law Ammarilla Barclay and Grace A. McDonald. …That said Ammarilla Barclay 1/3 there of an to said Grace A. McDonald 2/3 thereof; and all and irregular of the Real estate and the same in hereby assigned and vested in the said Ammerilla Barclay and Grace McDonald…

the following to-wit: N2 NW 1/4 Sec 6 – 137 -29, the Homestead, to said Ammarilla Barclay during the time of her natural life remainder to Grace McDonald in fee simple, all other land to Ammarilla Barclay an undivided 1/3 interest in fee simple and to Grace A. McDonald an undivided 2/3 interest in fee simple. …McGary Judge of Probate

Seven days later on 22 August, 1899 a deed was registered with the Cass County Register of Deeds, Cass County Courthouse, where  Grace sold back to Amarilla some land  for $1.00.

This indenture made this 22 August 1899 between Grace A. McDonald and Ronald S. McDonald her husband, parties of the first part to Ammarilla Barclay of the county and State of Minnesota, for one dollar to them in hand…page 98, Deed K. 1899. 

The north half of the northwest quarter (N1/2 of NW 4) and the southeast quarter of the Northwest quarter (NE4 and NW4) of Section Six (6) township 137, range twenty nine (29), also lot seven (7) and the southeast quarter of the southwest quaret (SE 4 of SW $) of Section thirty one (31) township one hundred and thirty-eight (138) Range twenty nine (29) togher with all the personal property of whatever nature the land may be now situated and being of said piece or parcels of land for any of said pieces or parcels. Signed by Grace A. McDonald and R.S. McDonald in the presence of A. Picket and Sarah A. Blinn.

County of Cass, 22nd day of August 1897 before me Notary Public – Grace A. McDonald formerly Grace A. Barclay and R.S. McDonald, husb. – free act and deed. J.G. Dawis, Notary Public. Signed by Grace A. McDonald and R.S. McDonald.  Witnesses by a A. Picket and Sarah A. Blinn. 

Very interesting that a J.G. Dawis signs as a notary public, could this be J.G. Dawes?

Another deed appears on the 26th of November, 1899 were Grace and Ronald McDonald sell more land back to Amarilla, Page. 414, Deed P for $2000 dollars.

Grace to Amarilla November 1899 Land

Portion of deed – Grace to Amarilla November 1899 Land

The North half of the North West quarter (N1/2 NW1/4) and the South East quarter of the North West quarter (SE1/4 NW1/4) of section Six (6) Township one hundred and thirty (137) Range Twenty nine (29).  Also Lot seven (7) and the South East quarter of the  South West quarter (SE1/4 SW1/4), of Section Thirty one (31) Township one hundred and thirty eight (1380 Range Twenty nine (29.). This was signed by Grace A. McDonald and R.S. McDonald and witnesses also by A. Pickett and Sarah A. Blinn. 

Grace and Amarilla were now in control of George’s estate and with the Final Decree it was now all in their hands to manage as they pleased.  In about a year to two Grace and Ronald would leave Pine River for Grand Rapids, Minnesota and by 1905 they would be in International Falls, Minnesota. Amarilla could have gone with them but she chose to stay in Pine River and she would continue to do so till her death in 1942. Grace and Amarilla kept in touch over the years for Amarilla was to become a grandmother 6 times over.

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Something must have happened between November 1898 and May 1899 that set in motion the convening of a Grand Jury regarding the murder of George A. Barclay.

The jail registers for Cass County, Minnesota show that Louis Bebo and Joseph DeJerrold were there in the month ending January-February, 1899 time frame. They were only there from February 14, 1899 to February 23, 1899.  As far as I can tell there is no paper trail for this incarceration other than the jail register.  So who ordered this and how it came about is unclear.

On May 9, 1899 Andrew  Hayford and Louis Bebo were indicted for murder in the 1st Degree and a Bench Warrant was issued 10 May 1899.  G. Hardy, the Sheriff was ordered to deliver them to the jail at Brainerd, Crow Wing County. In the Cass County District Court Records of 12 May, 1899, is an entry about this bench warrant and the indictment for murder.

Grand Jurry

Grand Jury

The Grand Jury came together in June of 1899.  The case was called at the Collins Precinct, Cass County, June 16, 1899 at 10 am.  B.F. Hartshorn appeared for the prosecution.

Here is a summary of the purpose of a Grand Jury, but I don’t know if this is exactly what it was like in 1899 in Minnesota.

A Grand Jury works with a prosecutor to determine if charges are to be brought against a potential defendant.  Grand Juries are made up of up to 23 people and it can go on for months.  There are no judges only the prosecutor who explains the law and works with the jury to gather evidence and hear testimony…They need a super majority of 2/3 or 3/4 agreement. Even if the grand jury does not indict the prosecutor can bring the defendant to trial if there is a strong case. They have to prove to the trial judge that they have a case.  If they have an indictment they can go right to trial.   (See Findlaw for more information).

There were objections made by the defendants mostly about the warrant not being read and these were overruled.

These are the names on the Indictment for murder written on 9 May, 1899.

The foreman of the Grand Jury was a Wm. D. Welch. The witnesses were as follows:  J.H. Middleton, G.L. Hardy, Fred Yllander, Andrew Whiteside, Enoch McMahon, C.H. Workman, R.C. Workman, R.C. Workman Jr., Thomas Nelson, Mrs. Geo. A. Barclay, Geo. A. Weaver, Thomas Coble, Bertha Michelson, Frank Beck, T.D. Shay, Ed Coyle, W.A. Curo, and J.G. Dawes.

Here are summaries of what was in the testimonies and you will see that not all of them are included.

1.  C. Fred Yllander was up first.

Yllander gave testimony at the corner’s inquest in November 1899.  He worked for Barclay as the store clerk and bar keeper.

“I being present at the time about six feet from him.  I stood looking over the bar with my face toward him, I looked up when I heard the report of the gun.  I saw him try to raise, but he could not and fell, at this I went out side of the bar to assist him I saw he was bleeding.  I went to summon other aid, when I came back I found the bullet had entered the neck of the left side and came through on the other side.  He died in about thirty minutes.

Apparently there was a plat map (Plat A) which described the scene inside the house.  Yllander recognized it.  This drawing was not in the court documents.

The best that can be gleaned from the description is that the scene was in the southwest corner of the house which faces southwest. There is the bar room.  There are two large windows a dood (indicating stairs). There was a notation where the post was located. Yllander says that Barclay was sitting east of the door smoking a cigar with one foot under him.

The bullet went through Mar Barclay’s neck and lodged in the post in the center of the room, the bullet went in a direct line so as to enter the post after passing through Mr. Barclay’s neck. 

Yllander describes that there was a small round hole in the window east of the door about 5 or 6 inches from the lower corner next to the door in the large front window. There is a court 8 feet wide in the front and southwest corner of the house.

Yllander refers to Coyle as a defendant.  There is no record of Coyle being served a bench warrant for this crime.  He did get put in the Crow Wing jail about the same time as Bebo and DeJerrold for stealing whiskey from Mrs. Barclay.

Interesting that there were 25 to 30 people after the train came in.  Pine River was a busy place.

2.  E. F. Lynch undertaker D.M. Clark & Co.,

Mr. Lynch states that he resides in Brainerd. I am supposed to be an experienced hand at the business.  I had a State License.  I was called upon to prepare the body of Mr. Barclay for burial.  I went there Monday morning about 6 A.M…after he was shot.  I had to sew up the wound in order to keep fluid from escaping. I would take the wound to be a gun shot entering from the right side about four inches below the right ear and coming out about one inch below the left ear.  I don’t think the neck was dislocated.  I don’t think the bone was struck.  I consider he bled to death.  There was no blood coming out of the mouth.  He mentions that Coyle helped him with opening getting the casket from the depot.

There seems to a slight difference in the description of the trajectory of the bullet. Yllander said left side to right, Lynch said right to left.

3.  Mrs. George Barclay, wife of the deceased.

I was in the kitchen at the time he was killed.  I heard the report of the gun…I went into the room.  The report of the gun pulled me to the room, I saw Mr. Barclay lying on the floor.  I don’t think he was dead at the time, but he died on the floor before being removed.  I had not been in the room before that evening….

She goes on to state she knew various people like Bebo, DeJerrald, Coyle and Clapp.  There were incidents of intoxication, threats, words exchange but nothing that she felt was of concern.

4.  Joseph DeJerrald states pretty much the same as what he did at the coroner’s inquest.  He is a nephew of Bebo and had been living with them for the last three years which later he says four years. Bebo lives 4 miles from Pine River.  His testimony wanders so much that it makes it hard to follow him.

He states that he was going to the depot at the time of Barclay’s killing.  They then went to unhitch the horses at the corn crib, Bebo took his rifle to the depot and they put the team in the old barn and got feed for the horses.  As he was putting his gun in the depot someone came in and said Barclay was shot.   He references his time in jail with Bebo back in February and mentions his uncle is now in jail in St. Paul.

 5.  Ed Harris was a new witness.  He lived in Walker and he talks about Clapp, Bebo and blurts out that the Indian’s did it and murdered Barclay.

6.  George L. Hardy, Sheriff of Cass County.  Frank Breese Deputy Sheriff from Cass County testified at the coroner’s inquest.

I know of the death of Mr. Barclay.  I am Sheriff of Cass County.  I was at the inquest.  I subpoenaed witnesses. I made examination of the premises.  I have seen this drawing before.  I and Mr. Middleton made these drawings.  This is a plan of the Hotel, Saloon and store.  I saw the hole in the window. 

I have the bullet in my possession.  It weighed 210 grains when taken from the post.  It corresponded with a bullet from a 38-56.  I examined Bebow’s gun, it was a 38-56 Winchester.  I got some of the bullets he used in his gun.  The 38-56 factory made bullets weigh 255 or 256 grains.  This bullet when it came from the post was badly battered up on the front end and along the side.  The butt end was not battered.  

Mr. Hardy believed the bullet from the post was similar to Bebo’s bullets. From this point Mr. Hardy meanders around about his conversations with Clapp and Coyle at the inquest, in February and others.  There is nothing about what happened at the time of the shooting at the actual scene of the murder.

7.  J. G. Dawes is a witness.

I am not a detective.  I am manager of the Barclay estate with view of taking the daughter’s interest. I have been there since about the middle of February.  I was in the employ of the North Dakota Milling Association… I sold them a car of feed and remained there over night…

Apparently J.G. Dawes went to St. Paul May 10th and talked in private to Bebo.  From his visit he took on the role of assisting Bebo with his earthly possession which were to be distributed among his children.  Dawes say that Bebo  implicated Clapp and Coyle as being the means of killing Mr. Barclay…that Clapp and Coyle were the principal men that caused the killing of Mr. Barclay.  Bebo denied he killed Barclay.  Dawes finished with we had possibly an hours conversation but nothing else bearing on the matter. 

The court adjourned:

Apparently the court was adjourned until Monday morning, June 19th, 1899.  State rests and the defendants move to dismiss the defendants on the ground, that form the evidence no public cause has been show that defendants or either of them committed the crime charged or any other crime. 

I am frustrated because I can’t figure out if Clapp or Coyle were ever arrested for this crime.  There is no examination of Andrew Hayford nor of Bebo at this Grand Jury and I am not even sure they were present.

The above are of course extremely stripped versions of the testimonies of these witnesses.

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